My works frequently contain foreign (primarily Japanese) words and phrases in dialogue. While many fanfic writers, especially the less experienced ones, do this to attempt to look "cool" (i.e., "fanboy Japanese"), in my case, it's simply a result of this being the way I "hear" the characters speak in my head. The degree to which I take this varies from work to work and mood to mood.
The following is a glossary which will allow readers to familiarize themselves with any terms they do not understand or cannot determine from context. Any given story will have a direct link to a glossary entry for the first iteration of a foreign word. (If something obviously not English isn't indexed in a story which is otherwise indexed to this glossary, it's probably because there was no point attempting to translate it.)
Unless there is a specific reason to do otherwise, Japanese names will ALWAYS appear surname-first; i.e. "Koiwai Yotsuba" instead of "Yotsuba Koiwai".
In the glossary below, many entries feature words, particles, prefixes, or suffixes in parentheses before and/or after them. These indicate various usages that may appear for the given word; for example, "big brother" might be rendered as Aniichan, Oniisama, Niisan, etc.
Some items in this glossary have external links to sites such as Wikipedia or TVTropes for the sake of elaboration.
Honorifics are suffixes applied to the ends of Japanese names. Honorifics are central to understanding the relationship between the speaker and the person to whom they are speaking or referring.
-san 「さん」: The standard honorific. Used when the speaker and the addressee are not well-acquainted, or when the relationship between speaker and addressee can be defined as politely respectful.
-han 「はん」: Kansai dialect corruption of "-san". Identical usage.
-sa 「さ」: Northeastern dialect corruption of "-san". Identical usage.
-sama 「様」: Used when the speaker displays extreme deference to the addressee, such as nobility or an individual the speaker "worships".
-tama 「たま」: Childish corruption of "-sama". Identical usage.
-chan 「ちゃん」: Used either when the speaker is on extremely familiar terms with the addressee or when the speaker is an adult or older teen and the addressee is a young child; this is usually only used when the addressee is either a girl/woman or a very young boy. This can also be used as a derogatory insult (especially if appended to the addressee's surname), and is frequently attached to a pet's name because it sounds "cute".
-tan 「たん」: Childish corruption of "-chan". Identical usage.
-chama 「ちゃま」: "Cutesy" melding of "-chan" and "-sama". Uncommon.
-kun 「君」: Similar to "-chan", except generally used with boys/men. Men will occasionally append this honorific to a girl/woman's name; women will never use this to refer to other women. Unlike -chan, this one is safe to use with either the given name or surname of the addressee.
-sensei 「先生」: Used when addressing a learned individual such as a doctor, teacher, artist, or writer. A show of respect for the professional position of the addressee.
-senpai 「先輩」: Literally "upperclassman"; used to address one's immediate superior in a school or work environment.
-kohai 「後輩」: Underclassman; office subordinate
-hakase 「博士」: Roughly, "professor". Somewhat different from "-sensei" in that it directly defers to the addressee's intelligence rather than any earned doctorate or teaching position.
Tono/-dono 「殿」: Used to address nobility. Archaic, but still in use. (In particular, the police and military tend to use this in place of "-sama".)
-shi 「氏」: Used when the speaker is referring to an individual they have never met. Generally only used in an "official" capacity. Uncommon. Not to be confused with the number four (「四」) or with 「死」 (death).
How one addresses members of one's family in Japanese.
(O)ba(-san/-sama/-chan) 「母」: Aunt; often used to address older women outside of the family.
(O)baa)-san/-sama/-chan) 「祖母」: Granny, Grandma, Grandmother; prefixes and suffixes vary.
Chichiue 「父上」: Father; archaic formal speech
Hibachan: Great-grandmother (this is EXTREMELY uncommon)
(O)ji(-san/-sama/-chan) 「叔父」: Uncle; often used to address older men outside of the family.
(O)jii(-san/-sama/-chan) 「祖父」: Gramps, Grandpa, Grandfather; prefixes and suffixes vary.
Jijiue: Grandfather; archaic formal speech
(O)kaa(-san/-sama/-chan) 「母」: Mom, Mother; prefixes and suffixes vary.
(A/O)nee(-san/-sama-chan) 「姉」: Older sister; prefixes and suffixes vary.
(A/O)nii(-san/-sama-chan) 「兄」: Older brother; prefixes and suffixes vary.
(O)tou(-san/-sama/-chan) 「父」: Dad, Father; prefixes and suffixes vary.
Oyaji: "Old Man", "Pops", rough/crude way of saying father.
Simple, everyday words and phrases.
Abayo: Goodbye, farewell
Abunai: Look out!; Danger!
Ahou: Idiot, dummy, fool (Kansai dialect)
Anata: Husband, dearest, etc. (usually; depends on the context)
Aniki: Literally older brother, but often used to address someone (male) the speaker is subordinate to. Frequent favorite of criminal/thug types. (The female version of this is "Aneki".)
Anime: If you didn't already know this one, you fail. Get the fuck off my website.
Anou: Japanese equivalent of "um", "er", etc.
Ara (maa): Expression of surprise or dismay, eg. "Oh?", "Oh my", "Oh dear"
(Doumo) Arigatou (gozaimasu): Thanks; thank you; thank you very much
Baka: Idiot, dummy, fool
Betsu ni: Nothing; not particularly; irrelevant
Bijou: Pretty lady
Bishoujo: Pretty girl
Chibi: Small, little
(Chotto) matte (kudasai): Wait; just a moment; please wait a moment
Chuugakkou: Junior high school
Daijoubu (ka): "Are you alright?"
Dame (da): Quit it, stop it, cut it out
Demo (ne): But, although
Doumo: Abbreviated form of thanks
Doushita (no): "What's wrong?"; "What's the matter?"
Doushite: "Why?" (as in "Why me?", "Why did this happen?", etc.)
Ee: "Yes", "yeah"; highly informal
Eto: Japanese equivalent of "um", "er", etc.
Ganbaru/Ganbatte: Good luck
Genki: Happy, energetic, in good spirits
Gomen (nasai/ne/na/kudasai): Apology, "Sorry"
Hai: Yes; occasionally used for purposes other than simple confirmation.
Hidoi: "That's terrible", "That's cruel"
Hontou (ka/ni/desu/da/yo/ne/sa): Really, truthfully, honestly; when written with "ka" it's a question (Really? Is that right?); written with "desu", "da", "da yo", etc. it's a statement (Really! That's right!); writen with any form of negative modifier, it's "That isn't right", etc.
Hora: "Look!", "Look here!", etc; argumentative interjection.
Iku(yo/ze): Go, I'm going, let's go, etc.
Ima da!: "Now!"
Irasshai(mase): Greeting used to welcome one; often used to greet customers to a place of business
Itadakimasu: Said before eating
Itai: Exclamation of pain
Ite: Exclamation of pain; relates to "itai" as "ow" is to "ouch"
Ittekimasu: "I'm going", "I'm leaving now"
Ja (mata/na/ne): Short informal parting; "bye" or "later"
Kirei: Beautiful; often used as an exclamation
Koi: Can mean either "love" or "carp"; as such, this word is a frequent victim of incredibly bad puns.
Konbanwa: Good evening
Konbini: Convenience store
Konnichiwa: Good day
Kotowari: Refusal, "I refuse"
Koukou: High school
Kyaa!: Effeminate scream, eg "Eeeek!"
Machinasai!: "Hold it!"; "Wait right there!"
Manga: Comic books; usually printed in black and white
Masaka: "It can't be!"; "Impossible!"
Mata (ne/o/ze): "Bye!", "Later!"
Matte (yo): Wait
Moshi-moshi: Standard phone greeting
Mou: Expression of frustration; eg "geez"
Nakama: Comrades, friends, close associates
Nani (ka/yo): What? (Variations: Nan da, Nan datto, etc.)
Naruhodo: I see, I understand.
Nihonjin: Japanese people
Oishii: Tasty, delicious
Ohayou (gozaimasu): Good morning
Okaeri (nasai): "Welcome home"
Okashii (na): "That's strange"
Okusama: Polite title of address when speaking to or about someone's wife; "madame"
Omoshiroi: Interesting, fascinating
Ossan: "Old dude" (rough and impolite)
Otaku: Fanatic (derogatory in Japanese)
Oyasumi (nasai): Goodnight
Ryoukai: "Affirmative"/"Roger"; military parlance
Sakura: Cherry blossoms
Sayounara: Goodbye, farewell
Shikkari(shite): "Pull yourself together
Shinpaishinai (de): Don't worry (about it)
Shitsure(shimasu): This is a formal way of taking one's leave, especially in a tense or unpleasant situation. The English equivalent, roughly, would be "Then if you'll excuse me..."
Shoganai: "It can't be helped"
Shoujo: Girl, girls, for girls
Shounen: Boy, boys, for boys
Sokomade (da/ja): "It's over", "You're done"
Sonna: Literally "It's like that"; "in that way"; colloquially used as an expression of disbelief
Sou (da/ka/desu/ne/yo/na/ja nai): "That's right", "I see", "Is that right?", etc.; multiple contextual applications depending on particle affixment (Sou ka, sou da, sou yo...)
Sugee/Sugoi (na): Cool, awesome, amazing, "wow!"
Sumimasen/Suman (na): Excuse me, pardon me
(Name/Pronoun)-tachi: (Name/Pronoun) and the others, group; "we" if appended to a first-person singular pronoun such as "watashi" or "boku".
Tadaima: Announcement that one has returned home
Taihen (desu/da): Dangerous; bad; usage varies by context
Tasukete: "Help", "Save me"
Un: Agreement, casual speech; "yeah"
Urusai: "Shut up!"
Uso: Interjection: "You're lying!"; often used in a milder context, eg "No way!"
Wai: Childish exclamation of happiness.
Wakatta/Wakatte/Wakarimasu: Understood, (I) understand
Wakarimasen/Wakarinai/Wakattenai: (I) don't understand/didn't understand/can't understand
Yame(ro/te): Stop, quit
Yatta: "I/we did it"; "Hooray" (G! R! DOUBLE E! N! LEAVES!)
Yokatta: I'm glad, I'm relieved
Yoshi/Yosh'/Yosha: Alright, okay
LESS COMMON SPEECH
Things you might not necessarily hear every day.
Barou: Idiot, dummy, fool
Fukutaichou: Vice President
Gaijin: Foreigner, outsider. Derogatory.
Gattai: Combination or fusion. Think the Megazord from Power Rangers.
Goshujin-sama: "Master"; typically how a maid addresses her employer.
Henshin: Transform, transformation
Hime: Princess (can also be used as an honorific)
Hyosatsu: Name plate on a house. They are very expensive and usually are not found on apartments.
Iinazuke: Fiance(e) by arrangement/betrothal.
Junsa: Police officer
Kaiju: Giant monster (i.e. Godzilla, Gamera, etc.)
Kaitou: Phantom thief
Kanpai: A drinking toast.
Keibu: Police detective-inspector; "keibu" is a relatively high rank and applies mainly to non-uniformed detectives. (Can be used as an honorific)
Keiji: Police detective; lower rank than "keibu", but still a plainclothes officer. (Can be used as an honorific)
Kitsune: Fox; in Japanese mythology, foxes are frequently represented as mischevious tricksters
Kouchou: Principal, headmaster. (Can be used as an honorific)
Madoushi: Sorcerer or sorceress, mage.
Mahoushoujo: Magical girl. This genre revolves around young girls, usually ranging in age from about 9 to about 15, who have magical powers. Some of the trappings of this genre include transformation trinkets and phrases, highly improbable costumes, and copious amounts of sparkles, hearts, and the color pink. Mahoushoujo as a genre ranges in tone and complexity from the silly slice-of-life hijinks of early magical girls, to the intricate, action-oriented, and sometimes very dark "majousentai" series such as Bishoujo Senshi Sailormoon and Tokyo Mew Mew.
Moe: Childlike cuteness; context applies to a specific fetish common in Japan
Moushiwake arimasen: An extremely formal admission of fault, usually used by a subordinate apologizing to a superior, or an employee apologizing to a customer/patron.
"Nande yanen": A Kansai expression, related to a particular style of Japanese comedy; roughly translates as "why the hell?"
Nisemono: Fake, fraud, impostor
Ookini: Thanks (Kansai dialect)
Oro: Interjection used when the speaker is confused or bemused
Ossu: VERY rough, provincial greeting; "hick" dialect
(Likely the only place you will EVER encounter this is Dragonball.)
Puroresu: Professional wrestling
Saraba (da): "Farewell" (archaic)
Seiyuu: Voice actor/actress.
Senshu 「手」: Challenger, competitor, contender
Shachou 「社長」: Chairman or president of a company. (Can also be used as an honorific.)
Shinkansen 「新幹線」: High-speed "bullet train"
Sukeban:Female juvenile delinquent
Yatai: A mobile cart used to prepare and sell food items such as sushi and okonomiyaki.
Anpan: Sweet bread roll filled with red bean paste
Bento: Box lunch
Daikon: Large, oblong white radish.
(O)dango: Small, round sweets, usually served on skewers
Horumon: Animal offal, such as heart, liver, tongue, intestines.
Korokke: A deep-fried chopped meat and potato dish similar to a croquette, but slightly different
Miso: Soup served as part of a traditional Japanese breakfast.
Mochi: Sticky rice cake
Natto: Fermented soybean curd. Widely regarded as one of the most foul, disgusting foods in the world.
Okonomiyaki: Pancake-like dish topped with various grilled meats, vegetables, and sauces.
Onigiri: Pressed rice balls wrapped in seaweed, usually with some salty ingredient as a filling.
Sata-andagi: Okinawan donuts.
Sashimi: Sliced fish served uncooked. Not to be confused with sushi!
Soba: Thin noodles made from buckwheat, served as hot noodle soup.
Sukiyaki: A simmered meat and vegetable stew; the ingredients are commonly dipped in a raw beaten egg mixture before eating
Sushi: Vinegared rice pressed into any of a number of distinctive shapes and typically topped or rolled with uncooked ingredients. SUSHI IS NOT RAW FISH!! Some sushi contains fish or other seafood, but many other ingredients may appear in sushi, including vegetables and other meats, and quite a few types of sushi contain no fish or seafood whatsoever.
Taiyaki: A grilled, filled pastry in the shape of a fish.
Takoyaki: Fried octopus, typically served as small balls on skewers. Very popular in Osaka.
Tempura: Lightly battered, deep-fried seafood or vegetables.
Udon: Thick wheat noodles, usually served in a hot soup.
Umeboshi: Pickled dried Japanese plums.
Yakiniku: Literally grilled/fried meat; traditionally, a yakinikuya features tables with small charcoal grills in the center. Patrons place orders of meat, vegetables, and sauces from the server, which are brought to the table prepared but raw, and the patrons cook the food themselves.
Yakisoba: Stir-fried noodles
Stuff that doesn't really have an easy English equivalent.
Bokken: Wooden sword used in kendou; also called a bokutou
Burakumin: "Unclean" people; a highly disfavored social caste
Daimyo: Feudal lord. Archaic.
Enjokosai: Compensated dating. Typically, involves underage girls dating older men in exchange for expensive, trendy items such as brand-name bags and shoes; usually does not involve sexual intercourse. Illegal nevertheless.
Furo: Japanese style bath
Gakuran: High-collared jacket typically worn as part of a male student's school uniform.
Genkan: The entranceway to a Japanese residence, where one's shoes are removed and where the house slippers are kept.
Geta: Elevated footwear carved from a single block of wood and worn with a rope thong.
Golden Week (黄金週間): The first week of May, during which a number of national holidays occur: Showa Day (昭和の日) [April 29], Constitution Memorial Day (憲法記念日) [May 3], Greenery Day (みどりの日) [May 4], and Children's Day (こどもの日) [May 5].
Hakama: Broad, divided lower-body garment. Frequently worn as part of a kendou uniform, or by men at a formal occasion. Also worn by Shinto priests and shrine maidens.
Haori: A larger robe worn over a kimono; this is traditionally worn open.
Jinja: Shinto temple
Juku: Cram school
Kami: Gods, spirits; the basis of Shinto lore
Kamon: Family crest.
Kana: Syllabic root of written Japanese. There are two sets of kana: katakana, used mainly for strong emphasis and loanwords, and hiragana, the most basic and simplified form of written Japanese.
Kanji: The third and most complex component of written Japanese, consisting of many thousands of pictograms with multiple readings and significant meanings.
Kansai-ben: Dialect of the Kansai region. Frequently spoken by individuals from Osaka or Kyoto.
Karaoke: If you actually clicked on the link for this one, you are officially a fucking idiot. Cheers!
Kancho: A juvenile prank popular among young children (boys especially) in which the perpetrator attempts to jam the index fingers of both hands up the ass of an unsuspecting victim.
Katana: Japanese sword with a curved blade and an extremely sharp edge. Famous for being among the deadliest and most resilient weapons ever made by man
Kendou: A Japanese sword art, practiced as a sport.
Ki: Energy within the body; the essence of life, central to many martial arts disciplines. In fictional stories involving martial arts, skilled fighters can channel ki into varying forms of powerful attacks.
Kiai: A yell or shout intended to focus one's physical and spiritual strength into an attack
Kibasen: A game played during sport festivals at Japanese schools where teams of students compete as "horse" and "rider" to remove a flag or bandana from the other teams' riders.
Kimono: Traditional Japanese attire. Largely worn only for formal occasions in modern times, except by the extremely traditional or elderly.
Koseki tohon: The family registry. In Japan, all vital public records for Japanese citizens are kept in the koseki tohon, rather than filed individually. Failure to be registered in your family's koseki tohon legally amounts to failure to exist.
Kotatsu: A low table, usually covered with a skirting quilt; many kotatsu have an electric space heater installed underneath them
Kouban: A police kiosk.
Kunai: A short iron knife with a triangular blade and a handle ending in a ring. A commmon ninja tool.
Kunoichi: Female ninja
Magatama: Comma-shaped beads, frequently associated with Buddhist lore.
Miko: Shrine maiden/priestess
Noren: Slitted curtain which hangs over a shop entrance; usually has the shop's logo on it and is usually brought inside when the shop is not open.
Obi: The sash worn with a kimono.
Ofuda: Prayer scrolls; frequently referred to as "spirit wards" due to their depiction as protection against evil spirits
Omamori: Talismans inscribed with prayers for luck, fortune, health, protection, etc.; often sold by Shinto shrines
Omiai: Betrothal arrangement meeting
Onsen: Hot springs resort
Origami: Art of folding paper into figures and shapes
Pachinko: An extremely popular pinball-type arcade game; players exchange trays of balls earned for prizes.
Ren'ai: A type of romance plot usually involving one male protagonist with multiple potential love interests; most commonly found in "dating simulation" games and so-called "harem anime"
Romaji: Roman letters; the alphabet
Ronin: Traditionally, masterless samurai; can also be applied to someone who has been disinherited
Sai: Three-pronged hand weapons, scarcely longer than daggers, used for disarming and stabbing.
Sake: Rice wine
Samurai: The elite noble warrior caste of feudal Japan; regarded as some of the most formidable warriors of all time
Sarashi: Strip of cloth wound around the torso; frequently used as a breast binding.
Seifuku: Sailor-style school uniform
Senbon: A long needle used as a throwing weapon, usually dipped in poison or a paralysis drug. Often depicted as a ninja weapon.
Shinai: Bamboo sword used in kendo practice
Shinobi: Warriors practiced in the art of stealth, misdirection, and silent killing; ie, ninja
Shogi: Japanese chess
Shoji: Ricepaper door/wall panel
Shuriken: Small, sharp throwing weapons, usually depicted as "ninja stars"
Surujin: A weapon consisting of a length of rope or chain with a weight attached to one end and a spike attached to the other.
Tatami: Straw mats used for flooring; the length of a tatami is always exactly twice the width, and tatami are laid on floors in precise arrangements.
Tokusatsu: Live-action special-effects shows, such as Super Sentai and Kamen Rider.
Torii: The gateway arch at the entrance to a Shinto shrine
Toudai: Common abbreviation for Tokyo University.
Uwabaki: The indoor shoes worn in Japanese schools.
Uwagi: Upper-body garment with no fastenings; secured by a rope belt or obi (sash). Frequently worn as part of a martial arts uniform; also worn by Shinto priests and shrine maidens.
Yakuza: Japanese organized crime
Yen: Japanese currency. Exchange rate fluctuation notwithstanding, 100 yen is usually roughly equal to US $1.00.
Yonkoma: 4-panel manga which are usually humorous or slice-of-life (or both). They are usually printed in a vertical format; one hallmark of the comic style is for the third panel to be a "beat". Azumanga Daioh is an example of yonkoma.
Yukata: A light cotton robe, similar in design to a kimono, but less elaborate and less formal. Usage of this garment varies from an outfit to wear to summer festival to what essentially amounts to a bathrobe.
Zori: Straw sandals
Potty mouth time!
Kisama: Extremely rude second-person mode of address
Kora: Attention-getting exclamation; equivalent of "Hey" but more coarse
Kurae: Literally "eat (this)"
Kuso: Literally "shit"; general-purpose mild swear word.
Kusottare: A stronger expletive than 'kuso'; roughly 'asshole'
Shimatta: Mild expletive; equivalent of "damn" or "crap"
Teme: Extremely rude; equivalent of "bastard"
(Kono) Yarou: "Bastard"
Anything that isn't Japanese, but isn't English either.
Airen: Husband/Beloved (Mandarin Chinese)
Aiyah: Chinese expression of dismay
Bie liao: Goodbye (Chinese)
Hangeul: Korean alphabet.
Ni hao: Hello (Chinese)
Qipao: A Chinese-style dress.
Xie-xie: Thank you (Chinese)
SPECIAL DIALOGUE NOTES
Because every so often, I'm compelled to write an entire sentence or conversation entirely in Japanese...or a term crops up that's intensely series-specific.
"Ai to seigi no, seira-fuku bishoujo senshi Sailormoon! Tsuki ni kawatte, oshioki yo!" 「愛と正義の、セーラー服美少女戦士、セーラームーン! 月に代わって、お仕置きよ!」: This is the trademark speech of Sailor Moon, uttered in pretty much every episode of the series. Translation: "For love and justice, the sailor-suited pretty soldier Sailor Moon! In place of the moon, I'll punish you!" Why do I render this in Japanese instead of writing it in English? Because it's that important.
Ano-yo: The afterlife, literally "that world". This is almost exclusively a Dragonball term.
"A-re-re?": One of Edogawa Conan's catchphrases, uttered when he spots something interesting. If it shows up anywhere that isn't a Detective Conan fic, just assume the character using it is copying Conan off TV.
"Edogawa Conan...tantei sa.": The 'sa' here isn't an honorific. Actually, it isn't anything. It's an odd nonsense particle that Conan uses for no apparent reason. It's certainly distinctive, though...
"Hoe?": Kinomoto Sakura's catchphrase. Uttered whenever she is surprised, confused, dismayed, or...just about any other time at all, really. It doesn't mean anything, it's just a cute noise Sakura-chan makes.
"Ittai nani kore": Basically, "What the hell?"
Jinzouningen: Artifical humans; usually (inaccurately) translated as "Androids" or "Cyborgs".
Kurozukume: Men in black; this is what Shinichi calls the Black Organization.
Mata ashita ne!: "See you tomorrow!"
Sentou-ryoku: Battle power; often translated as power level or energy level. The measure of a warrior's fighting power in Dragonball.
Shounen Tanteidan: The "Detective Boys" from Meitantei Conan.
Sonna: When this is said by itself, the general meaning is something like "That can't be" or "Is that it?" This one's kind of tricky, and makes more sense in context than it does explained.
Yare yare...: An expression of frustration or annoyance. Most famously used by Edogawa Conan.
Yoroshiku onegaishimasu: Extremely formal greeting, usually for when one is first introduced to a new acquaintance.
Umattori asks Umadakara "Genki da na?" He's asking if Umadakara is well—ie, this more or less translates to "You doing okay?"
Apart from the above, chapter 7 of The Alicorn Foal contains a great number of horse and deer related puns in Japanese. I'm not going to bother explaining all of them; if you really want to know, Google is your friend.
The conversation between Yukiko and Yuusaku in Honolulu translates as follows:
"Oh my goodness..."
"Hm? What's wrong?"
"What is it? Shinichi...?"
"... ... ..."
"Dammit! That brat..."
"Well, it can't be helped, can it? Let's go home."
During the battle, Izanagi says "Hitotsu...Futatsu...Mittsu"; he's just counting the number of Gigas the Senshi have destroyed.
"Ide yo, Shenron! Soshite negai o kanae tamae!" is the summoning call used to summon Shenron when the Dragonballs are gathered. It translates (roughly) as "Appear, Shenron! Grant my wish!"
Irotomesode are one of two types of formal kimono worn by married women. The choice of this kimono for Hinata at the omiai with Naruto is deliberate: by having her wear irotomesode, Hiashi is subtly announcing that he is about to marry her off.
In an early manga chapter, Fuuka asked Yotsuba what her daddy does for a living. Koiwai's profession is translator (honyakuka); Yotsuba mixed it up and reported it as konnyakuya (konnyaku maker).
(I'm not explaining what konnyaku is because it's irrelevant.)
Asagi's comment about "losing her 'bi'" is a callback to an early chapter of the manga, where Jumbo called Fuuka a bishoujo (pretty girl) when they first met; when he met Asagi later, Fuuka was "demoted" to just shoujo (girl); hence, she "lost her 'bi'."
Shampoo calls Makoto "Ri ben biao zi", which roughly translates as "Japanese whore".
Special Notes for Sailormoon Crystal:
[B1C3] "Tsuki no usagi": In Japanese folklore, rather than seeing a man's face in the full moon, one sees a rabbit pounding the rice for mochi. Tsukino Usagi, Sailor Moon, is named for this legend.
Special Notes for Moonshadow:
[Chapter 1] "Nani shiteru no?": Mrs. Aino is asking Minako if something is wrong.
[Chapter 1] "Nihongo de hanashite kudasai!": Mrs. Aino is asking Minako to speak Japanese.
[Chapter 9] "Oi, kimi.": Mamoru's greeting to Usagi is incredibly rude; "kimi" itself is not necessarily rude (although it's the same as saying "Hey, you"), but the tone here essentially equates to addressing her as "dog turd". Hence Usagi's understandably snotty response.
[Chapter 11] "Tuxedo to kamen no otoko": Literally "man with a tuxedo and mask".
[Chapter 13] Mugen Gakuen: "Infinity Academy", a fictitious school in Bishoujo Senshi Sailormoon.
[Chapter 13] Rin, pyou, tou, sha, kai, jin, retsu, zai, zen...Akuryou Taisan!: A chant Rei uses to invoke the power of the kami when using ofuda to banish evil creatures. (This may be found in other Sailormoon stories besides Moonshadow.)
[Chapter 15] 「アフター」: In Japan, emergency contraceptives such as Plan-B are called "after pills", and are extremely difficult to legally obtain.
[Chapter 17] "Wakatte me you?": This is deliberately broken Japanese and isn't intended to be comprehensible.
[Chapter 19] Karankoron: Onomotopaea for the sound of clacking geta.
[Chapter 20] Warui na: One way of saying "This is bad" or the equivalent; in this case, it's more like "Things aren't looking good".
[Chapter 22] Kochira dozo: Roughly means "Go this way" or "Follow me", though neither is a literal translation. Also, this form is an informal colloquialism; in purely formal textbook grammar this would be "Kochira e dozo" or "Dozo kochira e".
[Chapter 23] "Seigi no mikata": "Ally of Justice", an expression commonly found in media aimed at younger audiences.
Special Notes for 友達は魔法少女 ～ＦＲＩＥＮＤＳＨＩＰ ＩＳ ＭＡＧＩＣＡＬ ＧＩＲＬＳ～:
"Noso" and "Choki": These are verbal tics. Explaining them would constitute a spoiler, but inventive Googling should tell you what they mean...and who the two boys using them are...
"Atashi SMILE desu!": "I'm SMILE!"
"SU-MAI-RU!": This is what the English word 'Smile' actually sounds like in Japanese.
Pinkie's net idol earnings: Two million yen is about $19,400 in US currency.
"Rarichin": Sometimes, it's considered "cute" or "funny" or "endearing" to add certain suffixes to a person's name, usually a girl's name. These suffixes are invariably some form of "-in".
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